Sunday, February 12, 2006


"A New Factor In Evolution" by J. Mark Baldwin

J. Mark Baldwin's Original Paper (published in 1896) in which be
proposed the concept known today as "The Baldwin Effect":


"In several recent publications I have developed, from different
points of view, some considerations which tend to bring out a certain
influence at work in organic evolution which I venture to call "a new
factor". I give below the list of references [1] to these
publications and shall refer to them by number as this paper
proceeds. The object of the present paper is to gather into one
sketch an outline of the view of the process of development which
these different publications have hinged upon.

The problems involved in a theory of organic development may be
gathered up under three great heads: Ontogeny, Phylogeny, Heredity.
The general consideration, the "factor" which I propose to bring
out, is operative in the first instance, in the field of Ontogeny; I
shall consequently speak first of the problem of Ontogeny, then of
that of Phylogeny, in so far as the topic dealt with makes it
necessary, then of that of Heredity, under the same limitation, and
finally, give some definitions and conclusions."

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